We had our introduction to mammals back in the Triassic. They were ratty little critters then, but now that the non-avian dinosaurs are gone our mammals have become very serious and prolific.
So many mammal groups appeared in the early Cenozoic that we cannot cover them all in this course, or even mention many of them. That diversity dilemma is actually part of the story of the extraordinary adaptive radiation of the mammals. Note that the three-part division of mammals we see today (monotremes, marsupials and placentals) began in the Cretaceous. You may also want to refer to the mammal evolution site on Wikipedia, which is very well updated.
Again, the webpages from Berkeley will be highlighted here because they are organized in the most useful ways for us. You will want to look at their short rodents page. Now jump WAY up to the proboscidean (elephants, mammoths, mastodons) page just to delight in the wondrous variety in modern mammals. There are many sites devoted to mammoths, mastodons and other “Ice Age” mammals, including the Pleistocene exhibits at the Russian Paleontological Institute. Carnivores are always interesting, and are in themselves highly diverse. They include wolves, dogs, cats, raccoons, bears, weasels, hyenas, seals, and walruses. A hero to your cat is the ancient sabretooth, highlighted in special exhibits this year at Berkeley and the Illinois State Museum. (Watch an old school animation of a sabretooth from the BBC.) You can now make another mammal diversity leap to our unlikely cousins the cetaceans (whales and dolphins; here’s an Eocene whale found a few years ago in Egypt). The ungulates, or hoofed mammals, are an excellent group to use in a study of evolutionary patterns. The artiodactyls (cloven-hoofed mammals) include the prosaic sheep, goats, camels, pigs, cows, deer, giraffes, and antelopes (and now whales!). Their relatives the perissodactyls (“odd-hoofed” mammals) include rhinos, horses and tapirs today, but they were much more diverse in the past. The evolution of the horse is a classic story, told well at the “Fossil Horses in Cyberspace” site at the Florida Museum of Natural History.
Here is the Spring 2019 Final Exam description. (Monday, May 6, Noon-2:00 pm; test seating: Students with last names starting with A through L in Room 205; M-Z in Room 216.) Those superquizzes will be your encouragement to study! Our review session will be Friday, May 3, 3:30-4:30 pm.
Remember: Review sessions every Friday, 3:30 – 4:30 pm, in Scovel 205.
Mammoth tooth from the Pleistocene of Ohio.
Geology in the News –
Geological time scale showdown! This month it may be “officially” decided whether we’re now in a new geological time interval: the Anthropocene. The levels of controversy are delicious, from when the Anthropocene would start to whether we need a new term at all. Right now there is progress towards making 1950 the boundary year.
Was a fireball meteor which struck Earth in 2014 actually from outside our Solar System? This was not even thought a possibility a few years ago.